LRCS "Scientific Days" take place on December 18 and 19, 2014 (Amiens, France). "Scientific Days" take place two times per year. This is an internal conference in LRCS, where students and postdocs present their ongoing research work. This results in a very rich and interesting programme, including talks about novel batteries technologies, materials for energy, experimental characterization and theoretical modeling.
On December 12, 2014, MESC MSc. students are delivering their proposals presentations to solve the "Fuel Cells and Beyond Students Challenges 2014" created by Prof. A.A. Franco within his "Fuel Cells and Beyond" lectures series. Within the proposed challenges, the students are requested to propose solutions of diverse practical problems and applications, including the design of fuel cells to destroy nuclear waste and of systems to power Moon stations.
The best works will join the preselection of the 2013 edition for a publication in the Journal of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society.
On December 9, 2014, Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) is delivering a presentation within the Bi-annual Meeting of the ALISTORE European Research Institute. His presentation is entitled "Components Mesostructure in Rechargeable Batteries: Towards a Genome of the Fabrication Process?" and will take place in the "REPSOL Technology Centre" (Madrid, Spain). ALISTORE-ERI is composed of several european partners whose main objective is to develop and integrate common research strategy and programs in electrochemical energy storage. Activities include research and development of new technologies and it is also one of the hosting structures of the Erasmus Mundus Master on Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion (MESC).
In December 1, 2014, Garima Shukla arrives to LRCS to carry out an engineer research position on the topic of modeling of fabrication and microstructure formation in lithium ion battery electrodes. Garima Shukla is a former "MESC 9" MSc. student, graduated in September 2013 and ranked number 2 of the whole MESC master. She is co-supervised by Prof. Franco and Dr. M. Morcrette at LRCS.
In November 2014, Prof. A.A. Franco has been interviewed in the "Agir en Picardie" magazine, sponsored by the Picardie Region (France), as one of the three laureates of the 2013-2014 Region Picardie programme "Accueil Chercheur Haut Niveau" ("New Hosted High Level Researchers") with his project called "MASTERS" on lithium air batteries. The full magazine (appearing monthly) including Prof. Franco's interview can be accessed online here, and the pages with the interview are available herebelow for download:
In December 2014 Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) has been notified to be recipient of the P.E.D.R. (Prime d'encadrement doctoral et de recherche). The P.E.D.R. (called in the past P.E.S., or Prime d'Excellence Scientifique) is attributed at the national level to researchers performing excellence in research and supervision of students. The P.E.D.R. is provided for 4 years following the recommendation of the National Council of the Universities (CNU) in France. Prof. Franco was ranked within the 20% topmost applicants at the national level within the Section 33 (Materials Chemistry).
Prof. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) has been invited by the Region Picardie to introduce himself, his laboratory and his research project within the "Semaine de la Recherche et de l'Innovation de Picardie" which takes place in Laon, Picardie Region (France) on November 25-28, 2014. Prof. Franco is giving his speech on November 26, 2014. The invitation is because he is one of the three laureates by the Region Picardie within the 2013-2014 projects programme "Accueil Chercheur Haut Niveau" ("New Hosted High Level Researchers"). Prof. Franco's project is called "MASTERS" and is devoted to the investigation of lithium air batteries.
On November 13, 2014, LRCS (Amiens, France) hosts the progress meeting of the ANR (National) project "ALIBABA". This project is devoted to the development of a multiscale model (continuum model parametrized with atomistic and molecular level parameters) of a lithium ion battery cell. Particular focus is on conversion materials. Partners include Institut Charles Gerhardt (Montpellier, France), CEA (Grenoble, France) and LRCS (Amiens, France). The project is coordinated by Dr. Marie-Liesse Doublet (Institut Charles Gerhardt). Prof. Franco is involved as the "Multiscale modeling" Working Package Leader. Other LRCS colleagues involved include Prof. Dominique Larcher and the postdoctoral fellow Dr. Trong-Khoa Nguyen.
In the week of November 10, 2014, LRCS is hosting Dr. Marie-Liesse Doublet (Institut Charles Gerhardt, Montpellier, France) for a short scientific visit. Dr. Doublet is working since more than 10 years on ab initio modeling of lithium ion battery materials, and has developed several innovative methods for extracting their reactivity properties from first principles. Dr. Doublet and Prof. Franco are collaborating since several years, in particular within the framework of the ANR (National) project "ALIBABA" devoted to the multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries.
On October 16 and 17, 2014, it is taking place a progress meeting of the European Project "Eurolis". The meeting is taking place in Montpellier, France. This project is devoted to Lithium Sulphur Batteries, and Prof. Franco is involved in the tasks devoted to the modeling of relevant electrolytes and cells.
On October 16, 2014, Emilie Guille is defending her PhD thesis entitled "Coupled experimental/theoretical approach of electrode/electrolyte interfaces for lithium micro-batteries". The defence will take place in the University of Pau (Pau, France). Prof. Franco is "reporter" and member of the jury of this thesis.
On October 14, 2014, Prof. Franco is starting his lecture series on "Fuel Cells and beyond" within the Master MESC class #10 programme. This lecture series bring the students to the fascinating World of the physical electrochemistry, in a very interactive style and with several practices aiming to estimulate the students' creativity, in particular in relation to fuel cells and other electrochemical energy conversion devices. For more details see here.
On October 13, 2014, Yinghui Yin, MESC 9 MSc., is joining LRCS (Amiens, France) to work with Prof. Franco and Prof. Larcher on a PhD project on lithium air batteries. Her project will combine multiscale modeling and experimental characterization to provide deep understanding of the operation principles of these technologies.
Yinghui Yin was graduated as MSc. ranked number 3 of the whole MESC 9 programme.
Prof. Franco is laureate by the Region Picardie (France) with a project "Accueil Chercheur Haut Niveau" ("New Hosted High Level Researchers"). The name of Prof. Franco's project is "MASTERS" and aims to develop a deep understanding of the operation principles of lithium air batteries through a combined theoretical/experimental approach. The project presents several innovative aspects, including the use of virtual reality for the visualisation of calculation results.
Prof. Franco is one of the three laureates 2014.
On October 1, 2014, Prof. Franco's paper, written with his postdoc Dr. Xue, entitled "Carbon-based electrodes for lithium air batteries: scientific and technological challenges from a modeling perspective" (ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2 (10) (2013) M3084) became the most cited paper from the ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. In this paper, Prof. Franco and Dr. Xue review the status (as in 2013) of the computational modeling and numerical simulation methods of carbon and lithium air batteries with carbon-based cathodes. Particular focus is on multiscale modeling methods, and a first microstructurally resolved performance model of a lithium air battery cathode is proposed.
The report from the Electrochemical Society as in October 1, 2014, is posted herebelow. The link to the most cited articles of this journal (updated every month) is provided here.
Prof. Franco has been invited to deliver a talk in the Workshop "Electrochemical Interfaces: Recent Topics and Open Questions" on October 1, 2014, in Berlin, Germany. This Workshop is organized by the Weierstrass-Institute Berlin. The title of Prof. Franco's talk is "Electrochemical interfaces in energy conversion and storage: needs and challenges from a multiscale modelling perspective".
On September 25, 2014, Prof. A.A. Franco is delivering an invited seminar at BOSCH company, in Stuttgart, Germany. In his seminar he will review some of his past and ongoing research activities on modeling and numerical simulation of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage.
On September 22, 2014, Prof. A.A. Franco is starting his 2014-2015 teaching activities at Université Picardie Jules Verne. First semester courses given by Prof. Franco includes General Thermodynamics, Written and Oral Expression, History of Science, Nanosciences, Devices for Electrochemical Energy and Storage and "Fuel Cells and beyond" (within the Master on Energy Storage and Conversion - MESC-). More details can be found here.
On September 17, 2014, at Université de Picardie Jules Verne -UPJV- (Amiens, France) it is taking place the Graduation Ceremony of the Master on Energy Storage and Conversion (MESC). 20 top-most students within this programme are receiving their Master diploma and medal. Prof. A.A. Franco is currently teaching his "Fuel Cells" lectures-series within MESC, and he supervised the Master thesis of the MESC student He Huang on multiscale modeling of all solid lithium ion batteries. Following his Master thesis, He Huang will do a PhD thesis in the University of Waterloo, Canada (group of Prof. Linda Nazar).
Master thesis oral defences are taking place on September 16, 2014, at UPJV.
LRCS "Scientific Days" take place on July 17 and 18, 2014 (Amiens, France). "Scientific Days" take place two times per year. This is an internal conference in LRCS, where students and postdocs present their ongoing research work. Permanent staff is also welcomed to present. This results in a very rich and interesting programme, including talks about novel batteries technologies, materials for energy, experimental characterization and theoretical modeling. On July 17, Prof. A. A. Franco is going to deliver a talk entitled "Chaos in rechargeable batteries: thinking out of the (glove-)box".
On June 26-27, 2014, it is taking place the Bi-annual Meeting of the ALISTORE European Research Institute, in Delft, The Netherlands. ALISTORE-ERI is composed of several european partners whose main objective is to develop and integrate common research strategy and programs in electrochemical energy storage. Activities include research and development of new technologies. The Bi-annual meetings provide excellent opportunities to learn about the top-most progress in the field at the international level. Prof. A.A. Franco is going to attend this meeting.
On June 24, 2014, Prof. Jeffrey Greeley (Purdue University, Indiana, USA) is visiting LRCS and delivering an invited seminar entitled "First principles studies of trends in heterogeneous electrocatalysis" at 2:30 PM in Amphi Fligarz (Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France). Prof. A.A. Franco and Prof. Jeff Greeley know each other since several years, in particular within the context of their respective research works on fuel cells. Prof. Franco has visited him in Argonne National Laboratory (USA) in 2012.
Julien Ridoux, co-advised by Prof. A.A. Franco, Dr. Fréderic Sauvage (LRCS, Amiens), Prof. Jean-Paul Chehab and Dr. Youcef Mammeri (LAMFA, Amiens), is defending his Master Thesis on next June 18, 2014 in the Université de Picardie Jules Verne (Amiens, France). Julien Ridoux is working on the development of a multiscale model of a dye-sensitized solar cell, with special focus on the impact of degradation mechanisms (Solid Electrolyte Interphase formation) on the cell performance. He catalyzes a very nice multidisciplinary collaboration between experimentalists, physicists, electrochemists and mathematicians.
The MESC Master student Amangeldi Torayew is arriving to LRCS for a 3 months internship on the multiscale modeling of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage. More specifically, Amangeldi is going to work on the continuum modeling of electrode structure effects on the electrochemical response of supercapacitors (in collaboration with Dr. Frederic Favier, from Université de Montpellier, France) and on fuel cells.
Adjunct Prof. Kourosh Malek (Simon Fraser University and National Research Council of Canada) is visiting LRCS for a short stay within the framework of MESC, starting June 5th. The visit is hosted by Prof. A.A. Franco. He will continue his long-term collaboration with Prof. Franco, in particular in relation to the modeling of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage.
The "Cellule Energie" of the CNRS (Institut of Sciences of Engineering and Systems, INSIS) has notified Prof. A.A. Franco, as coordinator, their support for a collaborative 1 year explorative project between him and Dr. Marie-Liesse Doublet (Université de Montpellier, France) on the multiscale modeling of electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage (fuel cells, batteries...) (project "SIMILI"). The project is going to tackle in particular innovative methodologies allowing to couple quantum-mechanics with continuum approaches for the simulation of the liquid/solid interfaces (including the electrochemical double layer structure) in such devices.
On May 20, 2014, at 2:30 PM local time, Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) will deliver an invited lecture in the Department of Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh, USA. The title of his lecture is "Next Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells: scientific challenges and breakthroughs from a multiscale modeling perspective".
Prof. Franco is going to visit the University of Pittsburgh on May 19 and 20, 2014, hosted by Prof. Daniel Lambrecht.
On May 19, 2014, at 9:30 AM local time, Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) will deliver an invited lecture in the Center for Energy, Swanson School of Engineering at University of Pittsburgh, USA. The title of his lecture is "Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion for a Sustainable World: How Theory and Simulation Can Help to Face the Technological Challenges?".
On May 13, 2014, Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) is delivering an invited keynote and an invited tutorial on multiscale modeling and numerical simulation of electrochemical power generators in the 225th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (ECS), in Orlando, USA.
His invited keynote will take place at 4:20 PM within the Symposium A3 "Mechanical-Electrochemical Coupling in Energy Related Materials and Devices". The title of his keynote is "Theory and Simulation of Multiscale Interplays Between Mechanical and Electrochemical Mechanisms in Fuel Cells and Rechargeable Lithium Batteries" where he will provide an overview of his group's research activities in the field.
His invited tutorial will take place at 5:20 PM within the "State-of-the-Art Tutorial on Durability in Low Temperature Fuel Cells". The title of his tutorial is "Multiscale Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Materials Degradation Mechanisms in PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice" where he will discuss both theoretical and practical aspects of multiscale modeling and numerical simulation of PEMFC materials aging for their durability prediction. This will include some demonstration of the simulation capabilities with his software MS LIBER-T.
On May 13, 2014, at 3:00 PM, Dr. Kanhao Xue, postdoctoral fellow of Prof. A.A Franco (LRCS, Amiens) is delivering an oral presentation in Symposium F2 "Computational Studies on Battery and Fuel Cell Materials" within the 225th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (ECS), in Orlando, USA. The title of his presentation is "Electrochemical Double Layers in Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion: A Multiscale Simulation Study".
He will also deliver a poster presentation in Symposium A1 "Batteries and Energy Technology Joint General Session" on May 14, 2014 entitled "Optimization of the Cathode Microstructure in Lithium Air Batteries through Multiscale Physical Modeling".
On May 12, 2014, at 3:40 PM, Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) will deliver an oral presentation entitled Ab initio-Based Multiscale Simulations of Conversion Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries within the Symposium F2 "Computational Studies on Battery and Fuel Cell Materials", in the 225th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (ECS), in Orlando, USA. This presentation concerns a collaborative work ongoing between his group, Dr. Marie-Liesse Doublet (ICG, Montpellier) and the Maths Laboratory of the UPJV (LAMFA).
In the context of the recently created collaborative group "GRAINS", and with the support of the Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Prof. Michel Davier (University of Paris, and Member of the French Academy of Sciences) will deliver the third and last UPJV "Grand Public Conference" of 2014 with a conference entitled "The importance of the discovery of the Higgs' Boson". His conference will take place on May 7, 2014, at 2:30 PM, in Amphi Cassini, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France. Prof. Davier's conference is intended for a wide audience, including high school students, University students, researchers and engineers. Prof. Davier is an internationally recognized particles physicist, who deserved as associate professor at the University of Stanford (USA) and in numerous scientific commitees of particles accelerators (SLAC, MIT, CERN...).
On April 30, 2014, Dr. Matias Quiroga, postdoctoral fellow of Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens), is delivering an oral presentation in the 15th Topical Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry (Niagara Falls, Canada). The title of his presentation is "A new model of non-equilibrium electrochemical interfaces in electrochemical energy conversion".
In the context of the recently created collaborative group "GRAINS", and with the support of the Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Dr. Marco Cecchini (Université de Strasbourg) will deliver a "Grand Public Conference" entitled "Computational Approaches to the Function of Myosin: A Molecular Motor Protein". Dr. Cecchini is a close collaborator of Prof. Martin Karplus, one of the laureates of the Nobel Prize on Chemistry 2013). His conference will take place on April 15, 2014 at 2:30 PM, in Amphi Cassini, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.
In the context of the recently created collaborative group "GRAINS", and with the support of the Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Dr. Philippe Sautet (ENS de Lyon, and Member of the French Academy of Sciences) will inaugurate the "Grand Public Conferences" series of 2014 with a conference entitled "How does Heterogeneous Catalysis work?". His conference will take place on April 10 at 2:30 PM, in Amphi Fligarz, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France. Dr. Sautet's conference is intended for a wide audience, including high school students, University students, researchers and engineers. Dr. Sautet is a recognized scientist with high impact contributions in the field of catalysis and its modeling by ab initio computational methods.
Since 2007, Dr. Sautet and Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) closely collaborate in the field of catalysis modeling for electrochemical energy applications.
On April 7, 2014, Prof. Bernhard Maschke (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Laboratoire d'Automatique et de Génie des Procédés, France) will deliver an invited seminar entitled "A Hamiltonian Approach for the Modeling and Control of Distributed Parameters Systems". His seminar will take place at 10:30 AM at the Laboratoire Amiénois de Mathématiques Fondamentales et Appliquées (LAMFA), Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France (see here). Prof. Maschke is recognized for his contributions on the development of dynamical models with distributed parameters with the consequent extension of the classical Bond Graphs approach to infinite-dimensional systems.
Prof. Maschke was one of the PhD advisors of Prof. A.A. Franco (2003-2005) and has collaborated with him since then in the field of multiscale modeling of electrochemical power generators.
On April 3, 2014 at 10 AM, Chunmei Li will defend her PhD thesis entitled "Study of Rechargeable Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries". Her PhD project is under the supervision of Prof. Jean-Marie Tarascon (LRCS, Amiens) and Prof. Peter Bruce (University of St. Andrews, Scotland). Her defence will take place in Amphi Fligarz at the Université de Picardie de Jules Verne, Amiens, France. Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) is part of the PhD examining jury.
The collaborative group "GRAINS" (GRoupe de travail Amiénois en INteraction des Sciences) has been recently created within the Université de Picardie Jules Verne. This group, animated by Prof. Jean-Paul Chehab (Laboratoire Amiénois de Mathematiques Fondamentales et Appliquées -LAMFA-, Amiens), Prof. Youcef Mammeri (LAMFA, Amiens) and Prof. Alejandro A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens), provides a space for multidisciplinary exchanges among the sciences, from biology to mathematics, passing through robotics, physics and chemistry. GRAINS aims triggering proposals of collaborative actions and projects across the disciplines.
GRAINS follows two complementary approaches. First the group meet one time per month and invites a scientist involved in multidisciplinary research to perform a lecture. Furthermore, the group organizes three "Grand Public Conferences" per year delivered at the Université de Picardie Jules Verne by top-most scientists and professors from France and all around the World. The "Grand Public Conferences" scope get inspiration from the TED Conferences. The first three "Grand Public Conferences" will be delivered by Dr. Philippe Sautet (ENS de Lyon, France, Member of the French Academy of Sciences), Dr. Marco Cecchini (Université de Strasbourg, France, collaborator of Prof. Martin Karplus, Nobel Prize of Chemistry 2013) and Prof. Michel Davier (Université de Paris-Sud, France, Member of the French Academy of Sciences). Their conferences will take place in 2014 on April 10, April 15 and May 7 respectively.
GRAINS is officially starting on next March 24, 2014, with the invited lecture of Prof. Alejandro Maas (Universidad de Chile, Chile) on the topic of "Biology, Mathematics and Genomics". Prof. Maas' research activities are presented here.
More information about the collaborative group GRAINS is available here.
On next March 13, 2014, the Université de Picardie Jules Verne hosts a Comsol Multiphysics software Workshop. The last updates in this software will be presented by MSc. Stephan Savarese from Comsol, and particular application examples in relation to electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage (fuel cells and batteries) will be illustrated by the lecturer.
The detailed program and the information about the location are available here.
On March 7, 2014, Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) initiates a multidisciplinary Université de Picardie Jules Verne Doctoral School module created by him, which introduces the fascinating Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics Theory. This Lecture Series aims to teach the PhD students on how to use this powerful theory in their day-by-day scientific work to describe, analyze, understand and predict physicochemical mechanisms, biological cycles and astrophysics processes in the Universe. Within a highly interactive and comprehensive approach, the lectures aim stimulating the students to think "out of the box" and to develop their creativity within a transversal view of sciences. Prof. A.A. Franco's lectures are enriched with epistemological concepts and practical application exercises, including numerical simulations on cases of interest for the students' PhD thesis. The lecture series includes an introduction to the concepts, formalisms and applications of both first order and high order non-equilibrium thermodynamics, fractal geometry and chaos theory.
For the detailed Prof. Franco's Lecture Series program, see here.
On February 24, 2014, and within the 5th bi-annual meeting of the French Network of Electrochemical Energy Storage RS2E , Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) is giving a presentation entitled "Multiscale modeling and numerical simulation for the design of new batteries". The bi-annual meeting will take place at IFP Energies Nouvelles, centre of Solaize (Lyon region, France). RS2E is a national centre of excellence in reasearch and development of new technologies for electrochemical energy storage. The centre is directed by Prof. Jean-Marie Tarascon. The meeting audience includes people from academic laboratories, transfer institutes and industrials.
More info about the 5th bi-annual meeting of the RS2E can be found here.
On February 10, 2014, Prof. Franco starts at Université de Picardie Jules Verne his lectures series on Epistemology within the Master "MEEF" (Master on Teaching, Education and Training Careers). Within his lectures, he will teach some novel thinking approaches in sciences and their associated historical evolution. Main addresed topics include the concepts of "Energy" and of "Electrochemistry" in the frontiers of the "Metaphysics".
On February 10, 2014 (4:30 PM) Prof. Jean-Marie Tarascon gives his second lecture at College de France on Chemistry of Materials and Energy entitled "Better materials for lithium ion batteries: the deductive and inductive approaches of the chemist". For more details see here (in French).
The same day at 5:30 PM, Dr. Marie-Liesse Doublet (Institut Charles Gerhardt, Montpellier, France) gives a seminar entitled "A combinatorial theoretical chemistry for the establishment of a materials genomics". For more details see here (in French).
On January 23, 2014, Prof. Jean-Marie Tarascon gives his Inaugural Lecture at College de France, entitled "From the atom to materials for energy applications through solid-state chemistry".
For more information see here (in French).
On January 14 and 15, 2014, LRCS hosts in Amiens (Logis du Roy) the T12 progress meeting of the European Project "PUMA MIND" (see CONTRACTS). This project concerns the multiscale modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells. Prof. A.A. Franco, who originally set up and wrote this project in his former institute CEA, is since his arrival to LRCS (February 2013) involved as Working Package leader (Modeling and Simulation of Electrochemical Interfaces and Components Mesostructure).
On January 8, 2014, Prof. A.A. Franco (LRCS, Amiens) delivers an invited course at the IFP School (Rueil-Malmaison, France) within the Master program "EPA" (Vehicles and Sustainable Transport), Speciality on Electrification and Automotive Propulsion. His course is on physical modeling and numerical simulation of lithium ion batteries for automotive applications: the chemistry and the physics behind the operation principles of these batteries are revisited, and practical methods for the implementation of mathematical models in scientific software such as Matlab and Simulink are presented. Furthermore, emerging multiscale modeling techniques, bridging the gap between mechanisms at the atomistic scale and the whole cell behavior, are also discussed. The course includes some demonstrations of the in-house computational software MS LIBER-T being developed at LRCS.
Alejandro A. Franco,
Full Professor &
Junior Member of the
Institut Universitaire de France
+33 3 22 82 53 36
Institut Universitaire de France
Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides (LRCS)
Université de Picardie Jules Verne - CNRS / UMR 7314
33, rue St. Leu
Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l'Energie (RS2E)
FR CNRS 3459
ALISTORE-ERI, European Research Institute
FR CNRS 3104